make money online for beginners

Is It Possible to Make Money Online for Beginners? Exploring the Truth


The digital era has opened up a myriad of opportunities for individuals looking to make money online for beginners, the prospect of earning an income from the comfort of their home is not only appealing but also increasingly feasible. This comprehensive guide is designed to navigate you through the various avenues of online income, tailored specifically for those who are new to this digital frontier.

In this journey, we will explore the essentials of online earning, from understanding the basics to mastering advanced strategies. Whether you’re a student, a stay-at-home parent, or someone looking to supplement your income, this guide will provide you with the knowledge and tools needed to start your online earning journey.

Key Points:

  • Potential of Making Money Online: The vast opportunities available for beginners.
  • Realistic Expectations: Understanding the time and effort required.
  • Patience and Perseverance: Key attributes for success in the online world.

Understanding the Basics of Online Earning

Entering the world of online earning can be both exciting and overwhelming. To set a strong foundation, it’s crucial to grasp the basics and differentiate between genuine opportunities and potential pitfalls.

What Does It Mean to Make Money Online?

Making money online involves earning income through various digital platforms and channels. This can range from freelance work and content creation to online sales and investments. The key characteristic of online earning is its location independence, offering the flexibility to work from anywhere with an internet connection.

Legitimate Opportunities vs. Scams

  • Legitimate Opportunities: These include freelance work, affiliate marketing, blogging, e-commerce, and more. They require real skills, effort, and often an initial time or financial investment.
  • Scams: Quick money schemes, promises of high earnings with no effort, and programs asking for upfront payments for “secret formulas” are typically scams. Always research and verify the legitimacy of an opportunity.
make money online for beginners

Time Investment and Skill Requirements

  • Time Investment: Online earning isn’t a shortcut to quick riches. It requires time, just like any traditional job. The amount of time invested often correlates with the potential earnings.
  • Skill Development: Many online earning methods require specific skills, such as writing, web design, marketing, or coding. Continuously improving these skills increases your earning potential.

Key Takeaways:

  • Understanding the Landscape: Knowing the different ways to make money online for beginners.
  • Identifying Scams: Learning to distinguish between legitimate opportunities and scams.
  • Skill and Time Investment: Recognizing the importance of skill development and time commitment.
make money online for beginners

Setting Up for Success Online Business

To thrive in the online earning landscape, preparation is key. Setting up effectively can significantly impact your productivity and success. Here’s how you can lay a solid foundation for your online earning journey.

Essential Tools and Resources

  • Reliable Internet Connection: The backbone of all online work.
  • Computer or Laptop: Invest in a device that can handle your specific tasks efficiently.
  • Productivity Software: Tools like Microsoft Office, Google Workspace, or project management apps.

Creating a Productive Workspace at Home

  • Dedicated Space: Designate a specific area in your home for work to minimize distractions.
  • Ergonomic Furniture: Comfortable seating and proper desk setup can improve productivity.
  • Organizational Tools: Use planners, digital calendars, and note-taking apps to stay organized.

Time Management Tips for Beginners

  • Set a Schedule: Establish a routine to balance work and personal life.
  • Prioritize Tasks: Focus on high-priority tasks to manage your workload effectively.
  • Breaks are Important: Regular breaks can boost focus and prevent burnout.

Key Takeaways:

  • Invest in Essentials: The right tools and resources are crucial for efficiency.
  • Workspace Matters: A conducive work environment enhances focus and productivity.
  • Time Management: Effective time management is vital for balancing work and personal life.

Exploring Popular Online Money-Making Methods

For beginners, the online world is brimming with opportunities to earn money. Let’s delve into some of the most popular methods, providing a starting point for your online earning journey.

Freelancing: A Gateway to Online Earnings

Freelancing offers flexibility and a wide range of opportunities across various industries. Here’s how to get started:

  • Popular Platforms: Websites like Upwork, Fiverr, and Freelancer connect freelancers with clients. Create a profile showcasing your skills and experience.
  • Profile Tips: Highlight your strengths, include a professional photo, and gather testimonials from any past work.
  • Project Selection: Start with smaller projects to build your portfolio and gradually move to higher-paying gigs.

Affiliate Marketing: Earning Through Referrals

Affiliate marketing involves promoting products or services and earning a commission for each sale or lead generated. like Wealthy Affiliate is a large legit community to study SEO courses and affiliate programs, you can learn while earning with your blog. When you earn from this platform, you can also refer to your other members to learn and make a commission.

  • Choosing Products: Select products that align with your audience’s interests and your niche.
  • Promotional Strategies: Use blogs, social media, or email marketing to promote products.
  • Tracking Performance: Utilize affiliate links to track sales and optimize your strategies.

Blogging: Monetizing Your Passion

Blogging can be a lucrative way to share your knowledge or passion with the world.

  • Starting a Blog: Choose a niche, set up a blog using platforms like WordPress, and create quality and informative content, if you don’t know how to start with a blog, you can check the guide on my homepage, and I will teach you step by step.
  • SEO and Content Marketing: Learn basic SEO to increase your blog’s visibility. Use engaging and informative content to attract and retain readers.
  • Monetization Methods: Earn through ads, sponsored content, affiliate marketing, or selling digital products.

E-commerce: Selling Products Online

E-commerce involves selling products through an online store or platforms like Amazon.

  • Dropshipping and Amazon FBA: These models allow you to sell products without holding inventory.
  • Building an Online Store: Platforms like Shopify or WooCommerce in WordPress make it easy to set up a store, before building your website, you need to research your niche, and do keyword research.
  • Marketing Your Store: Use social media, Google SEO, and email marketing to attract customers.

Key Takeaways:

  • Diverse Opportunities: There’s a wide range of methods to make money online, catering to different skills and interests.
  • Starting Small: Begin with manageable projects or products and scale as you gain experience.
  • Continuous Learning: Stay updated with trends and continuously improve your skills and strategies.

There are great a keyword tool that you can research which are your niche products for your online store, this keyword tool is called the Jaaxy keyword tool, and you can try it 30 times for free search.

Leveraging Social Media for Income

Social media platforms are not just for connecting with friends and family; they can also be powerful tools for generating income. Here’s how beginners can leverage social media to start making money online.

Earning through Platforms like Instagram, YouTube, and TikTok

  • Instagram: Utilize Instagram for sponsored posts, affiliate marketing, and promoting your products or services. Building a strong, engaged follower base is key.
  • YouTube: Create a YouTube channel focused on a specific niche. Monetize through ads, sponsorships, and merchandise sales once you meet the platform’s eligibility criteria.
  • TikTok: Leverage TikTok for brand partnerships and to drive traffic to other income-generating platforms. Creativity and trend participation are crucial.
make money online for beginners

Building a Following and Engaging with Your Audience

  • Consistent Content: Regularly post high-quality, relevant content to keep your audience engaged.
  • Engagement: Interact with your followers through comments, messages, and live sessions to build a community.
  • Collaborations: Partner with other creators to expand your reach and audience base.

Understanding Social Media Algorithms

  • Algorithm Insights: Each platform has its unique algorithm. Understanding these can help you optimize your content for better visibility.
  • Content Strategy: Tailor your content strategy to suit the platform’s algorithm, focusing on factors like engagement, relevance, and timeliness.
  • Analytics Tools: Utilize built-in analytics tools to track performance and adjust your strategy accordingly.

Key Takeaways:

  • Platform Potential: Different social media platforms offer various opportunities for income generation.
  • Audience Engagement: Building and maintaining a strong relationship with your audience is crucial for success.
  • Algorithm Mastery: Understanding and adapting to social media algorithms can significantly boost your online presence and earning potential.
make money online for beginners

Passive Income Streams

Passive income is a highly sought-after goal for many aspiring to make money online. It involves creating revenue streams that require minimal ongoing effort to maintain. Here’s how beginners can start building passive income online.

Introduction to Passive Income

  • Definition: Passive income is earnings derived from ventures in which an individual is not actively involved. Unlike active income, it doesn’t require trading time for money.
  • Examples: These can include earnings from rental properties, dividends from investments, or income from online businesses.

Ideas for Generating Passive Income Online

  • Digital Products: Create and sell digital products like e-books, courses, or stock photography.
  • Affiliate Marketing: Earn commissions by promoting other people’s products on your blog or social media.
  • Investing in Stocks or Cryptocurrency: Generate income through dividends or capital gains. However, this requires initial financial investment and carries risk.

Balancing Active and Passive Income Strategies

  • Initial Effort: Most passive income streams require significant upfront work, like writing a book or setting up a blog.
  • Maintenance: Regular updates and marketing efforts may be needed to keep the income stream viable.
  • Diversification: Combining active and passive income streams can lead to a more stable and sustainable online income.

Key Takeaways:

  • Long-Term Benefits: Passive income streams can provide financial stability and freedom in the long run.
  • Upfront Work Required: Initial effort and investment are often necessary to establish these income sources.
  • Risk and Reward: While passive income can be lucrative, it’s important to assess and manage the associated risks.

Online Investment Opportunities

The digital age has opened up a plethora of investment opportunities that can be accessed online. These platforms offer the potential for significant returns, but they also come with their own set of risks. Here’s a beginner’s guide to navigating online investment opportunities.

Basics of Online Trading and Investments

  • Understanding Online Trading: Online trading involves buying and selling assets like stocks, bonds, and mutual funds through an online platform.
  • Research and Knowledge: Successful online trading requires understanding market trends, company performance, and economic indicators.
  • Starting Small: Beginners are advised to start with small investments and gradually increase as they gain more experience and confidence.

Cryptocurrency: An Emerging Field

  • Introduction to Cryptocurrency: Cryptocurrencies are digital or virtual currencies that use cryptography for security. Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Ripple are some well-known examples.
  • Investing in Cryptocurrency: This involves buying and holding cryptocurrencies, trading them on exchanges, or investing in crypto-related companies.
  • Volatility and Risk: The cryptocurrency market is known for its high volatility, offering high reward potential but also significant risk.

Online Investment Opportunities

Navigating the world of online investments offers exciting prospects for beginners. However, it’s essential to understand the landscape, including the basics of online trading, the burgeoning field of cryptocurrency, and the balance of risks and rewards.

Basics of Online Trading and Investments

  • Understanding Online Trading: Engaging in online trading means buying and selling assets like stocks, bonds, and mutual funds through an online brokerage platform.
  • Key Fact: According to a report by Statista, the global online trading market is expected to reach approximately 12.16 billion U.S. dollars by 2028, indicating significant growth potential.

Table: Popular Online Trading Platforms

PlatformFeaturesUser-Friendly Score
E*TRADEDiverse investment options, educational resources4.5/5
TD AmeritradeExtensive research tools, no minimum deposit4.7/5
RobinhoodCommission-free trades, mobile-first approach4.3/5

Cryptocurrency: An Emerging Field

  • Introduction to Cryptocurrency: A digital or virtual form of currency, using cryptography for security. Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Ripple are prominent examples.
  • Investor Quote: “Cryptocurrency has not only given the fastest way to transfer money but also a new entity to trade with and to earn money apart from stocks and other commodities,” – Peter Diamandis, Founder of the X Prize Foundation.

Case Study: Bitcoin’s Rise

  • Background: Bitcoin, the first cryptocurrency, was created in 2009. It introduced the concept of decentralized digital currency.
  • Growth: In 2010, the value of one Bitcoin was less than $0.01. As of 2023, its value has seen peaks of over $60,000.
  • Impact: This unprecedented growth has led to increased interest and investment in cryptocurrencies, though it also highlights the market’s volatility.

Risks and Rewards of Online Investments

  • Market Risk: The value of investments can fluctuate significantly, influenced by global economic factors.
  • Diversification Strategy: Spreading investments across different asset classes can help mitigate risk.
  • Long-Term Perspective: A quote by Warren Buffett, “Our favorite holding period is forever,” underscores the value of a long-term investment approach.

Key Takeaways:

  • Growing Market: The online investment market offers diverse opportunities with substantial growth potential.
  • Risk Awareness: Understanding and managing risks is crucial for online investment success.
  • Educational Investment: Continuous learning and staying informed are key to navigating the online investment landscape.

Risks and Rewards of Online Investments

  • Market Risk: The value of investments can go up or down based on market conditions.
  • Diversification: Spreading investments across different asset classes can help manage risk.
  • Long-Term Perspective: Adopting a long-term investment strategy can yield better results compared to short-term trading.

Key Takeaways:

  • Opportunities Abound: Online platforms provide access to a wide range of investment opportunities.
  • Educate Yourself: Understanding the basics of trading and investments is crucial.
  • Risk Management: Being aware of the risks and adopting strategies to mitigate them is key to successful online investing.

Skill Development for Online Earning

In the realm of online earning, continually developing and refining your skills is not just beneficial; it’s essential. As the digital landscape evolves, so must your abilities and knowledge. Here’s how you can focus on skill development to enhance your online earning potential.

Identifying and Developing In-Demand Skills

  • Market Research: Stay informed about the most sought-after skills in the online marketplace. Websites like LinkedIn and Glassdoor regularly publish reports on high-demand skills.
  • Skill Development Areas: Focus on areas like digital marketing, content creation, web development, graphic design, and data analysis.

Table: Top In-Demand Skills for Online Earning

SkillApplicationLearning Platforms
SEO and Digital MarketingEnhancing online visibilityUdemy, Coursera
Content WritingBlogging, marketingSkillshare, LinkedIn Learning
Web DevelopmentWebsite creationCodecademy, Treehouse

Online Courses and Resources for Skill Enhancement

  • E-Learning Platforms: Utilize platforms like Coursera, Udemy, and Khan Academy for structured courses.
  • Community Learning: Engage in forums and online communities related to your field for practical insights and tips.

Quote on Learning:

“Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever.” – Mahatma Gandhi

The Importance of Continuous Learning

  • Adapting to Change: The digital world is constantly evolving, and staying updated with the latest trends and technologies is crucial.
  • Case Study: The Rise of AI in Digital Marketing
    • Background: The integration of AI in digital marketing has revolutionized strategies like personalized marketing and predictive analysis.
    • Impact: Marketers who have adapted AI into their strategies have seen a significant increase in campaign effectiveness and customer engagement.

Key Takeaways:

  • Skill Relevance: Keeping skills relevant and updated is key to staying competitive in the online earning space.
  • Diverse Learning Resources: A wealth of online resources makes skill development accessible and convenient.
  • Lifelong Learning: Embracing continuous learning is essential for long-term success in online learning

Building Your Online Presence

In the digital age, having a strong online presence is crucial for success in making money online. It’s not just about being visible; it’s about establishing credibility and connecting with your target audience. Here’s how you can build and enhance your online presence.

Creating a Personal Brand

  • Define Your Niche: Identify your area of expertise and what sets you apart from others.
  • Consistency Across Platforms: Ensure your branding is consistent across different online platforms, including social media, your website, and professional networks.

Networking and Collaboration Opportunities

  • Online Networking: Utilize platforms like LinkedIn to connect with industry professionals. Engage in meaningful conversations and share your insights.
  • Collaborations: Partner with other online professionals or influencers to expand your reach. Collaborations can open doors to new audiences and opportunities.

Using Social Media and Personal Websites Effectively

  • Social Media Strategy: Develop a strategy that aligns with your brand and goals. Regularly post engaging content and interact with your audience.
  • Personal Website: A personal website can serve as a portfolio showcasing your work, testimonials, and services.

Table: Effective Tools for Building Online Presence

HootsuiteSocial Media ManagementSchedule posts, track engagement
WordPressWebsite BuildingCustomizable templates, SEO-friendly
CanvaGraphic DesignEasy-to-use design tools for branding

Quote on Online Presence:

“Your brand is what people say about you when you’re not in the room.” – Jeff Bezos

Legal and Financial Considerations

  • Understanding Online Business Laws: Be aware of the legal requirements related to online business in your region, including taxes and data protection laws.
  • Financial Management: Keep track of your earnings, expenses, and investments. Consider using financial management tools or consulting with a financial advisor.

Key Takeaways:

  • Personal Branding: A strong personal brand is essential for building trust and authority online.
  • Strategic Networking: Effective networking and collaborations can significantly enhance your online presence.
  • Utilizing Tools: Leveraging various online tools can streamline the process of building and maintaining your online presence.

Legal and Financial Considerations in Online Earning

When diving into the world of online earning, it’s crucial to navigate the legal and financial aspects responsibly. Understanding these elements ensures your online ventures are not only profitable but also compliant and sustainable.

Understanding Taxes and Legal Requirements

  • Tax Obligations: Income earned online is subject to taxation. Familiarize yourself with tax laws in your country regarding online income.
  • Business Registration: Depending on your level of income and nature of online activities, you might need to register as a business.
  • Intellectual Property Rights: Be aware of copyright laws, especially if your online work involves creating or sharing content.

Setting Up a Payment Method and Managing Finances

  • Choosing a Payment Platform: Options like PayPal, Stripe, and bank transfers are commonly used. Consider fees, ease of use, and geographical availability.
  • Financial Tracking: Regularly monitor your income and expenses. Tools like QuickBooks or Excel can help keep financial records.

Protecting Yourself from Online Fraud

  • Secure Transactions: Use secure methods for online transactions and be cautious of sharing financial information.
  • Staying Informed: Keep up-to-date with common online scams and how to avoid them.
  • Data Protection: Ensure your personal and business data is secure. Use strong passwords and consider cybersecurity software.

Balancing Risk and Reward in Online Investments

  • Risk Assessment: Understand the risks associated with different types of online investments, such as stock trading or cryptocurrency.
  • Diversification: Spread your investments to mitigate risk.
  • Seeking Professional Advice: Consider consulting with a financial advisor for personalized investment strategies.

Key Takeaways:

  • Compliance is Key: Adhering to legal and tax requirements is essential for long-term success.
  • Financial Management: Effective financial management is crucial for tracking and maximizing online earnings.
  • Safety First: Protecting yourself from online fraud and scams is paramount in the digital earning space.

Building Your Online Presence

Establishing a robust online presence is a critical step for anyone looking to make money online. It’s about creating a digital identity that resonates with your audience and reflects your professional expertise. Here’s how you can effectively build and enhance your online presence.

Creating a Personal Brand

Developing a personal brand is about defining who you are, what you stand for, and how you want to be perceived in the digital world.

  • Identify Your Unique Selling Proposition (USP): What makes you different? Understanding your USP is key to standing out.
  • Consistency is Key: Ensure your messaging, visual style, and tone are consistent across all digital platforms.

Enhancing Your Digital Footprint

Your digital footprint is the trail you leave online. Make it count.

  • Active Social Media Presence: Regularly update your social media profiles with relevant content to engage your audience.
  • Content Creation: Share your knowledge through blogs, videos, podcasts, or infographics. Quality content can significantly boost your online visibility.

Networking and Collaboration Opportunities

  • Engage in Online Communities: Participate in forums, LinkedIn groups, or Twitter chats related to your field.
  • Collaborate: Work with peers or influencers in your industry. This can help you reach a wider audience and gain credibility.

Leveraging SEO for Personal Branding

  • Optimize Your Content: Use relevant keywords in your blog posts, social media updates, and website to improve your search engine rankings.
  • Create Valuable Content: Search engines favor content that is informative, engaging, and valuable to users.

Monitoring and Adapting Your Strategy

  • Track Your Progress: Use analytics tools to monitor the performance of your content and understand your audience better.
  • Adapt and Evolve: Be prepared to tweak your strategy based on feedback and changing trends in the digital landscape.

Key Takeaways:

  • Personal Branding: A strong personal brand is your digital signature and key to establishing trust and authority online.
  • Content is King: High-quality, consistent content is vital in building and maintaining your online presence.
  • Engagement and Networking: Active participation and collaboration in your industry can significantly enhance your digital footprint.


As we wrap up this comprehensive guide on making money online for beginners, it’s important to reflect on the key points we’ve covered and look forward to the journey ahead. The world of online earning is vast and full of potential, but it requires dedication, learning, and adaptability.

Recap of Key Points Covered

  • Understanding the Basics: We started by exploring the fundamentals of online earning, emphasizing the importance of distinguishing between legitimate opportunities and scams.
  • Setting Up for Success: We discussed the essential tools, creating a productive workspace, and effective time management strategies.
  • Exploring Money-Making Methods: From freelancing and blogging to affiliate marketing and e-commerce, we delved into various methods to earn money online.
  • Leveraging Social Media: We highlighted how social media platforms can be used to generate income and build a following.
  • Passive Income and Investments: The significance of passive income streams and the basics of online investments were explored.
  • Skill Development: The importance of continually developing skills to stay relevant in the ever-evolving online landscape was emphasized.
  • Building an Online Presence: We discussed the importance of creating a personal brand and establishing a strong digital footprint.
  • Legal and Financial Considerations: The necessity of understanding the legal and financial aspects of online earning was underscored.
  • Success Stories and Challenges: We looked at real-life success stories and discussed strategies to overcome common challenges and stay motivated.

Encouragement and Motivational Words for Beginners

  • Start Your Journey: Remember, every expert was once a beginner. The first step is often the hardest, but it’s the start of an exciting and rewarding journey.
  • Embrace Learning: Be open to continuous learning and adapting. The online world is dynamic, and staying informed is key to success.
  • Persistence is Key: There will be challenges and setbacks, but persistence and resilience will lead you to success.


  • Take the First Step: Choose one method or platform that resonates with you and start exploring it further.
  • Stay Committed: Dedicate time each day or week to develop your online earning strategy and skills.
  • Join a Community: Consider joining online forums or groups related to your chosen method for support and advice.

Success Stories and Case Studies

One of the most inspiring and educational aspects of exploring online earning is learning from those who have already achieved success. In this section, we delve into real-life success stories and case studies, offering valuable insights and lessons.

Real-Life Examples of People Who Succeeded in Making Money Online

  • Blogging Success: Consider the story of a blogger who started a niche blog and, through consistent high-quality content and effective SEO strategies, grew it into a full-time income source within a year.
  • Freelancing Triumph: A graphic designer who began offering services on platforms like Fiverr and Upwork, gradually building a strong portfolio and client base, eventually leading to a steady stream of high-paying projects.

Lessons Learned and Tips from Successful Online Earners

  • Persistence Pays Off: Many successful online earners emphasize the importance of persistence and resilience, especially in the early stages.
  • Adaptability: The ability to adapt to market changes and continuously update skills is a common trait among successful individuals.
  • Networking: Building a network of contacts and collaborators can open up new opportunities and avenues for growth.

Case Study: The Rise of Affiliate Marketing

  • Background: Affiliate marketing has grown exponentially as a lucrative method of online earning. It involves promoting products or services and earning a commission for each sale or lead.
  • Success Example: An individual who started a niche affiliate website focusing on tech products. By creating in-depth reviews and using targeted SEO strategies, they were able to generate substantial passive income.

Analyzing What Works and What Doesn’t

  • Effective Strategies: Regular content updates, audience engagement, and strategic marketing are often cited as key factors for success.
  • Common Pitfalls: Underestimating the time and effort required, neglecting SEO, and poor-quality content are common reasons for failure in online ventures.

Key Takeaways:

  • Inspiration from Success: Real-life success stories provide motivation and practical insights.
  • Learning from Experience: Understanding the strategies and challenges faced by others can guide your own online earning journey.
  • Blueprint for Success: These stories and case studies offer a blueprint for what can work in the world of online earning.

Overcoming Challenges and Staying Motivated

The journey to making money online is not without its challenges. Understanding these obstacles and learning how to stay motivated through them is crucial for long-term success. Let’s explore strategies to overcome common hurdles and maintain your drive.

Common Challenges Faced by Beginners

  • Information Overload: The vast amount of information available can be overwhelming. Learning to filter and focus on what’s relevant is key.
  • Time Management: Balancing online endeavors with other life responsibilities can be challenging, especially in the initial stages.
  • Facing Rejection: Whether it’s a declined article submission or a project proposal, rejection is a part of the journey and should be seen as a learning opportunity.

Strategies for Overcoming Obstacles

  • Set Realistic Goals: Start with small, achievable goals and gradually aim higher as you gain more experience and confidence.
  • Develop a Routine: Establish a consistent work routine to enhance productivity and manage time effectively.
  • Seek Support: Join online communities or forums related to your field. Sharing experiences and advice with peers can be incredibly helpful.

Staying Motivated and Focused on Your Goals

  • Celebrate Small Wins: Acknowledge and celebrate your progress, no matter how small. This can provide a significant motivational boost.
  • Stay Inspired: Regularly read success stories, listen to podcasts, or engage with content that keeps you inspired and driven.
  • Mindset is Everything: Cultivate a positive mindset. Challenges are opportunities for growth and learning.

Key Takeaways:

  • Resilience is Crucial: Overcoming challenges is part of the journey to success in online earning.
  • Stay the Course: Consistency and perseverance are key to achieving long-term goals.
  • Support Systems Help: Leveraging support systems, whether online or in-person, can provide much-needed encouragement and guidance.

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